Here are the rests you need to know for the grade 3 music theory exam, in order of length, starting with the longest:

semibreve – minim – crotchet – quaver – semiquaver –

Rests can also be dotted.

The semibreve rest is also used as a whole bar rest, even when the value is worth less than four crotchets, for example in this 3/4 bar. It is placed in the centre of the bar.

The “whole bar” rest can be used in any time signature except for 4/2, where two semibreve rests are needed for one bar’s silence.

## Choosing the Right Rests

Although rests show silence, you still need to use the right rests according to the time signature, because rests are written to make the main beats of the bar easy to see.

• You will always need to start by working out the type and number of beats per bar, according to the time signature. Also work out what the next sub-division of the beat is.
E.g. 2/4 = two crotchets per bar, and each beat divides into 2 quavers, 6/8 = two dotted crotchets per bar, and each beat divides into 3 quavers.
• Then use rests worth one beat or two beats, but two-beat rests may only be used on the strong beat of the bar. (In duple and triple time, this means the first beat of the bar only, and in quadruple time it means the first and third beats of the bar). You may also use the whole bar rest (see above).
• Don’t use dotted rests in simple time signatures (those with 2, 3 or 4 on top).
• If the rest you need is worth less than one beat, use smaller rests to complete the beat or sub-beat, before you do anything else.
• When completing a beat or a sub-beat, always put a longer note/rest before a shorter one, and not the other way round.

Examples

Rests worth one or two beats, or a whole bar:

Examples a-e are correct. Example f is wrong, because the two-beat rest has been put on the weak 2nd beat of the bar.

Examples a-c are correct. Example d is acceptable but used more rarely these days. Example e is incorrect, because the shorter rest is before the longer one. Example f is wrong, because we should use a rest worth one complete beat (a dotted crotchet).

Rests worth less than one beat

Examples a and b are correct. Example c is wrong, because the first crotchet beat must be completed (with a quaver) before anything else, and we don’t use dotted rests in simple time signatures. Example d is wrong, because the sub-beat (=quaver) should be completed before anything else. Example e is wrong, because we don’t use dotted rests in simple time signatures.

Examples a and b are correct. Example c is wrong, because the beat is balanced with a shorter part before a longer part (quaver note + crotchet rest). Example d is wrong, because a minim rest is never used in 6/8, as it is not worth one or two beats (it’s worth one-and-a-third beats!) Example e is wrong, because we need to complete the sub-beat first (to make a quaver). Example f is wrong, because we have a longer rest (crotchet) after the shorter, first quaver sub-beat. Example g is wrong for many reasons!

Don’t forget that rests can also be included as part of triplets.

The first two beats have a minim rest – the minim rest is allowed because it falls on the strong beat. The third beat is a triplet figure, with only two quavers. We need another quaver here to complete the triplet. The rest is written inside the square triplet brackets.

The first triplet figure is completed with a quaver rest. This makes up the first crotchet beat. The second triplet figure is completed with a crotchet rest.

## Adding Rests to a Melody

Let’s try to work out the correct rests for some melodies.

First, look at the time signature, and make a note of the number and type of beats per bar.

Write in the rests, making sure that you complete main beats before anything else, and that you don’t write long rests on weak beats.

Here’s an example:

• Bar 1: complete the first crotchet beat with one quaver.
• Bar 2: complete the first crotchet beat with a quaver rest, then write a crotchet rest to complete the second beat of the bar. Use a minim rest for beats 3 and 4 (ok because it falls on the strong 3rd beat).
• Bar 3: whole bar rest.
• Bar 4: finish the bar with a minim on the strong 3rd beat.
• Bar 5: crotchet rest to mark the first beat, quaver rest to complete the triplet on the second beat.